The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

OK, so after two years I've finally given in to having a section of the FORUM specifically set up to discuss painting techniques, display examples, show your latest projects and chat about this vital part of the hobby. Manufacturers please feel free to post up your sculpts, ask questions about what the gamers are after and generally promote your work.. no charge! Painters, please also feel free to post up your work for comment and critique. I can't promise the unreserved adulation characteristic of some other fora but I would hope you'd get constructive and measured comment!
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Friedrich August I.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Tue Apr 10, 2012 6:50 pm

Part II.:
1687 The Elector withdrew the right of the Colonnels to place Officers of their own choosing because they often gave or sold them to "Plodders". With this date the Elector himself, by pleading of the Feldmarschal-Lieutenants and proposal of the Colonnels decided who has to get the officers post.
1688 Saxony sent one Infantry Regiment of 1500 men, formed from men of all existing Regiments under the name "Kurprinzliches Leibregiment" to fight for the Emperor against the Turks.
1688-1691 The Empire's War against France.
The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire liked to believe Louis XIV. to keep his promise of Peace but the Elector of Saxony, Johann Georg III. anticipated war. So he decided to bring his army to full strenght and gathered it at Torgau 1688. In September 1688 the French invaded the Empire without a declaration of war and took Heidelberg, Heilbronn and Mainz.
1689 The Emperor sends a request for Siege Artillery to the Saxon Elector who commanded 12 halbe Kartaunen(demi-Cannon) of 24pd and 2 mortars of 96 and 64pdrs to be delivered to the Imperial Army who besieged Mainz.
Halbe Kartaune 24pdr.jpg
Halbe Kartaune 24pdr, weight 5 tons
Halbe Kartaune 24pdr.jpg (56.58 KiB) Viewed 5552 times
It was at this place that the Elector reinforced his Army by raising new units: a 5th and a 6th Regiment of Horse, a 2nd Regiment of Dragoons and one further Artillery Company
1691 On 12th of September Johann Georg III. dies. Successor was his 23 Years old son who took the Oath of the Army in the field near Heilbronn as Johann Georg the IV.
Johann Georg IV. Kurfürst von Sachsen.jpg
Johann Georg IV. Kurfürst von Sachsen.jpg (52.56 KiB) Viewed 5552 times
1692 The Cadet-Corps of 142 'men' was raised.
In the same Year the Compagnie Grand-Mousquetaires,128 men was raised which were in 1693 splitted up under the dragoon Regiments as Grendiers a Cheval.
The Regiment "Kurprinz" was sent back to Saxony and replaced by the new formed Regiment Schmerzing. Back in Saxony the "Kurprinz" Regiment as the now new Leibregiment converged with the allready existing Leibregiment to form a Doppel-Regiment of 4 Battalions and 20 Companies.
1694 The terms Battalion and Regiment was new defined. Battallion was to stand for Exercise and marching and fighting formation on demand or need.
The Cavalry stood in 3 ranks and they should now attack with the sword in stead of firing pistols.
Early in the Year 1694 the Infantry was by removal of the term Regiment in 12 Battalion of 10 companies each divided.
The 3 battalions of the Leibgarde had 926 men each while the others had 930 men each. All 12 Battalions were to be commanded by a Colonnel.
On 27th of April 1694 Johann Georg IV. died by small pox.

Friedrich August I. or August the Strong was now Elector of Saxony.

To be continued.
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Sat Apr 14, 2012 4:58 am, edited 3 times in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Thu Apr 12, 2012 5:25 am

Part III.:
In the Years before becoming Elector of Saxony August traveled arround Europe, including visiting the French King, Louis XIV.
While Saxony was at war he and his deceased brother were with his father in the field earning their first laurerls in leadership and braveness. But he has a dream. A dream of a greater country and a more dominant role in Europe. Saxony and their rulers were the figureheads of the protestants in Europe. Besides this the Saxons played only a minor political role. Framed by the Brandenburg / Prussians to the north and the Austrians to the south there was not much 'new' land to be aquired by an ambitious ruler of Saxony.
At the Age of 27 he became Elector of Saxony by the name of Friedrich August I.(not to confound with Friedrich August I. King of Saxony).
Friedrich August der Starke.jpg
Augustus II. 'The Strong', King of Poland and Elector of Saxony
Friedrich August der Starke.jpg (20.29 KiB) Viewed 5599 times
1694-97 Ending of the Empires War and changes in the Army.
1694 The Elector promised the Emperor to send an Army of 12.000 men to the Rhein, Commanded by FZM. Count Reuss.
7080 men Infantry:
2 Battalion Garde 2000 men
Cadets 80 men
5 Battalion Infantry 5000 men
3936 men Cavalry:
Garde du Corps
6 Horse(Curassier-)Regiments;
Leibregiment, Schachmann,Rathsamhausen,Bronne,Schöning and Bünau.
2 Dragoon Regiments 990 men; Schöning and Klemm.
Artillery:
16 3pdrs Regimentsstücke for 'Geschwindschiessen'>Fastfiring< and 3 Petards 299 men.
All together 11,315men excluding Generals Staff and Supply Personal.
The Army went under the Command of the Markgrave of Baden.
Before the year ended the following reorganisation came to bear:
Dissolving of the remaining Battalions and redistributing them into the field units. Abondoning the term Battalion(again) and calling them Regiments instead, but with no sub-division in Battalions any more. This leads to large Regiments like the Leibgarde 20 Companies with :shock: 2988 men :!: and the remaining 5 Regiments with 10 Companies and 1494 men each.
1695 The Emperor starts negotiations with the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg to send troops to fight the Turks and the Hungarian Insurrection. 8000 men are to be commited in 9 Squadrons and 7 'Battalions'(10 Half-Companies each), from the Cavalry 1 Squadron of each Regiment, 160 men in 2 Companies each. No Artillery.
On the 30th October 1695 the Elector decreed form Vienna that the new Uniform should now be Red for all Regiments on Foot.
As the Emperor demanded more troops to be sent to war against the Turks the troops in Saxony shrunk to only one Battalion and Garrison Companies in the main Fortresses of Dresden, Königstein and Sonnenstein.
Therefore the Elector decided to increase the Army. Any of the 7 Regiments, Guard still counted as two, has to increase it's 'Battalions' from 2 to 3. Each Battailion consisted of 750 men in 5 Companies.

More nex time.
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Sat Apr 14, 2012 5:03 am, edited 1 time in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Fri Apr 13, 2012 4:42 am

Dear Friends,

As I am not sure if this posts here are not a bit to extensive I will cut them down to Army relevant informations only. If someone is interested in where and when the Saxon Army has fought I can post it here.

Thanks for reading

Günter
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Mon Apr 16, 2012 5:21 am

Part IV:
1696 Johann Sobiesky, King of Poland dies
As the last out of 17 candidates Friedrich August I. of Saxony is on 15th September 1697 crowned as King Augustus II. of Poland.
Because of certain conditions which he has to fullfill as King, such as regaining lost territories from the Turks, he has to summon his entire army into Poland which is to assemble at Krakau.
Besides the troops allready there he obtains from
Netherlands - Combined Horse Regiment Bünau
Sachsen Gotha - Horse Regiment Reichenau
Wolfenbüttel - Dragoons(red coat, black facings)
On his way down from Warszaw to Krakau he met for the first time
with Zar Peter the Great, who was on his way back from the Hague over Dresden and Vienna to Moscow.
In Nawa they agree on an Alliancetreaty between Russia and Poland.
1698 As now alomst all of Saxonies Army is in Poland, the new King has to look for help securing his own homeland. He strikes a deal with Denmark who sends troops from Hungaria and Denmark to be stationed in Saxony. They are from Denmark 3 Infantry Battalions and 1 Dragoon Regiment, Prinz v. Würtemberg in Saxony and from Hungaria (2073 men) 1 Infantry Regiment and 1 Dragoon Regiment,Gen.Mjr. von Tromp, in Poland.
1699 As it seems that the year goes by peacefully the following Saxons troops are sent back to the Electorate:
Cavalry - Leibregiment, Trauttmannsdorff, Löwenhaupt and Lubormirsky.
Infantry - Garde, Röbel and Benkendorff
Arriving from Austrian service the Infantry Regiment Holstein (renamed Königin) was also now in Saxony.
Therefore the Danish troops are of no further use and are able to return home.
1698 - 1704 will see 31 changes within the Saxon army.
There have been many 'Owner-'changes in the Army. Some because of the death of the former owners and some because of their retirement. Some new units are also raised:
Leibtrabantengarde - dissolved but raised again as Swiss Trabantenleibgarde also called German Trabantengarde on Foot.
The brandenburg Colonnel Venediger raised an Infantry Regiment of 12 companies completed in 1703.
Magnat Minniszek raised a Dragoon Regiment, Lt.Col. v. Brause commanding, including 2 Companies of Sachsen-Gotha(Red uniform, Lemonyellow facings)
1697 By Order of the King all the Infantry has to wear Mantles instead of the former Surtouts(a man's overcoat resembling a frock coat) and instead of the skirts are long Kamisols in the color of the doublure to be worn.
1698 The Kamisol has to be made of red cloth, so that the inside color are to be seen on collar, cuffs and facings to show the color of the Regiment.

The next part are the 'to be' raised new Regiments and the strenght increase of the army from 10 to 24 Foot Regiments.

Thanks for following

Günter
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Sun May 20, 2012 6:45 am, edited 3 times in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by maciek » Mon Apr 16, 2012 6:29 am

Great thread.
Thanks.

BTW - this might be interesting for you:
http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2012/04/ ... trian.html
Maciek

http://zealandbayonets.blogspot.com/
wargaming in 10mm
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Tue Apr 17, 2012 4:51 am

maciek wrote:Great thread.
Thanks.

BTW - this might be interesting for you:
http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2012/04/ ... trian.html
Thanks,
at least the last 3 pages I know because I have THE BOOK :wink:
The first seems to be an austrian source.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Tue Apr 17, 2012 5:27 am

Part V.:
The coming of the Great Northern War. A political view.

If it is not by the election of August as new ruler of Poland that they made war against Sweden some can say it is by the character of Patkul, the man you defected from swedish service only to find shelter in Saxony/Poland. He was a bootlicker par excellence. He talked at August to join into the alliance of Russia and Denmark and make war against Sweden.
By getting King of Poland he also agreed to the terms of the nobles to bring back the lost province of Livland. Ill advised and not well prepared the Saxon army started a war which ended fatally for Saxony in 1706.
King August II. begun the war with an attack on the Fortress of Riga in 1699.
1700 Battle at Riga on 14th.Feb
1700 Battle at Dünamünde on 23rd. March
1700 Battle at Jungfernhof on 30th. Juli
1700 The Siege of Riga ends out of political reasons, foremost because of Denmark stepping back out of the Alliance.
1700 Battle of Narva, Russia's Main Army destroyed; now the Saxons have to bear the brunt of the War against Sweden.
1701 The year start actual with Peacetalks. These were to be doomed and so Saxony took up the war again unvaliantly.
1701 In March August II. meets the Zsar Peter at Birsen/Lithuania to talk about the details of the Campaign ahead.

Part VI is the military Situation in Saxony/Poland in 1700.

Thanks for following

Günter
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Wed Apr 18, 2012 5:31 am

Part VI.:
The Military Sitiuation of the Saxon/Polish Army at the Beginning of the Great Northern War was not to well. There was a constant lack of money. For some reason this comes out of the not received payment by the Emperor for sending troops against the Turks and other events like a great fire in Dresden that destroyed 2/3rd of the City and swallowed up enormous amounts of money to rebuild it.

The Army stands at the end of the year 1699 as follows:

Horse: Guarde du Corps, 3 Comp. 150 men each
Kürassiere: Leibregiment, La Forest, v. Beust, Baner, Reichenau
Dragoner: Weißenfels, Flemming, Ganosky, Wolfenbüttel

Infantry:
Janitscharen Regiment, 1. Garde, 2. Garde, Feldmarschall, Röbel, Königin, Jordan, Reitschütz, Benkendorff, Venediger, Bornstädt.

Artillery:
1 Feuerwerker Comp., 3 Kannonier Comp., 1 Minier Comp. and 'Pontongäste'

1701 Reorganization of the Army from 10 to 24 Regiments. Two Regiments would have the same uniforms but different doublure.
1. Garde (polish Guard).....2. Garde(saxon Guard) .........white
3. Königin.....................4. Egidy............................skyblue
5. Kurprinz....................6. Thielau.........................lemonyellow
7. Steinau.....................8. Zeitz(new).....................green
9. Biron.......................10. Tromp(new)..................uncertain
11.Pistoris....................12. Reuß(new)...................bleumourant
13.Sacken....................14. Marschall(new)..............mossgreen
15.Fürstenberg(new).......16.Löwenhaupt(new)...........darkblue
17.Görtz(new)...............18.Rothenburg(new)............seagreen
19.Beichlingen(new)........20.Weimar(new).................grey
21.Dünhof....................22.Flemming(should be recruited in Poland)..uncertain
23. and 24. 2 Schweizer Regiments didnt get completed

At the beginning of the year 1701 the Regiments are named after their Commanders except those who had princely persons or Fieldmarshalls as chiefs.

This ends for now my historic view of the Saxon Army at the Beginning of the Great Northern War. What remains.....is well known History.

Now back to my mini's as I got yesterday warbases for 130 GBP :wink:

Thank you for following.

Best Wishes,
Günter
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Sat Aug 11, 2012 9:12 am, edited 1 time in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Redmist1122 » Sun Jul 29, 2012 2:35 am

Gunter,
WHat's the latest update on building your Saxon Army?
Greg P.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Sun Jul 29, 2012 4:10 pm

Redmist1122 wrote:Gunter,
WHat's the latest update on building your Saxon Army?

Beside of having the Warfare figures and the Warbases at hand the current progress has been stopped. At the Moment my Saxon Army of 1810 get's all my time and resources.
In the meantime I considering to go for Barry's proposal to produces figures...for me and Saxony :wink:
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Redmist1122 » Sun Jul 29, 2012 5:08 pm

Gunter,
My progress has picked-up again...this semester of classes has ended for 3 weeks, now back to painting.
I painted up 2 squadrons of the Liebregiment. Looking at doing 1 squadron of Garde du Corps Grenadier zu Pferde and Chevalier Garde. 2 Squadrons of Garde du Corps Trabanten, two squadrons of Kurprinz Cuirassier regiment and two squadrons Goltz Dragoon Regiment.
I'm using Wargames Factory plastics for this venture.
I welcome any thougts on painting plan.

Thank you.
Greg P.
Tucson, AZ, USA
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Sat Aug 11, 2012 9:53 am

Dear Friends and followers of this Tread,

after a dramatic pause I decided to continue to write again about the struggle of the Saxon-Polish-Lithuanian Commenwealth against the Swedish Ogre. The next parts will include the first encounters along the coastline, some minor but also some of the larger engagements, the military but also the economical problems which Saxony has to face.

To be continued...
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by obriendavid » Sat Aug 11, 2012 2:13 pm

Looking forward to it Gunter, sounds very interesting.
Cheers
Dave
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Tue Aug 14, 2012 10:14 am

Part VII:
From the beginning of the Northern War 1700 to the reoganisation of the Army 1717.

The Opening of the War, the fight's along the Duena(Düna) 1701 and the Campaign in Poland.
The next reason for a fight against Sweden was the result out of the coronation-oath of August as King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to reconquer the lost Province of Livonia. 1699 he tried by raiding the Fortress of Riga. The attempt failed because of the alertness of the Swedish Forces.
1700. Besides the fact that the Saxon Army was far from war readyness on Feb.11th 1700 the Army crossed again the Polish-Livonian border.
The Force consited of:
Infantry Regiments 1.Garde, Königin, Bornstädt
Dragoon Regiments Weißenfels, Flemming, Ganosky, Wolffenbüttel.
Feb.14th 1700, Storming of the Colbroner Redoubt. The first Attack was pointed on the Redoubt opposit close to Riga. It was stormed by the Saxon Infantry in the night from 13th to the 14th. The Swedish Comander of Riga, Gen. v. Dalberg, protested against this attack because of no official declaration of war but the fight did go on as the Saxon Cavalry prowled through Livonia. A Siege of Riga was currently unthinkable because of the lack Siege Material.
A Corps of Troops designated for Livonia moved out of Saxony on May 5th 1700 and consisted of:
4 Kürassier Regiments Leibregiment, Feldmarschall, La Forèt(later Kurprinz), Beust
5 Infantry Regiments 2. Garde, Feldmarschall, Röbel, Tiesenhausen(earlier Jordan), Benkendorff.
Artillery Company Captain Zizner and the General Staff with the Generals v. Beust, v. Benkendorff and v. Hallert of the Cavalry as v. Röbel and v. Bornstädt for the Infantry.
At Riga were allready the Generals v.Fleming and v. Patkul.
The Saxon Field Army consisted of 13.682 men with approx. 8000 Horses and was commanded, including the Troops before Riga, by F.Z.M. v. Steinau.
In Saxony remained the Kürassier Regiments Reichenau and Baner, the Infantry Regiments Reitschütz and Venediger and the Defension-Regiments under the Command of Gen. v. Birkholz.

March 23. 1700, The Storming of Dünamünde
http://vesture.eu/images/e/e0/Neumunde_1700.jpg
As there was no chance to conquer the main Fortress of Riga part of the Saxon Troops turned against the smaler autonomous fortress of Dünamünde which covered Riga from the seaside and was built on flat sand islands. The forces were the Regiments 1. Garde, Königin, Bornstädt and the Dragoon Regiment Weißenfels who stormed the fortress, not with immediate success and the cost of 143 dead and 435 wounded, but within the following three days the Swedisch defenders capitulated to the Saxons.
Over the months April and May 1700 swedish reinforcements were landed near Riga and forced the only 3000 men strong Saxon troops to retreat before the 18.000 Swedish Troops on the left side of the Düna.
As the Swedes waited for the arrivel of further reinforcements the Saxons could retreat along the Düna unharmed and unite on June 28th with the Saxon Army. On July 15th King August arrived and resumed command over the Saxon-Lithuanian Army of 16.000 Saxons and 1.600 Lithuanians.

To be continued...

Günter
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Wed Aug 15, 2012 1:31 pm, edited 2 times in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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Re: The raising of the Saxon Army 1699-1712

Post by Friedrich August I. » Tue Aug 14, 2012 11:21 am

Part VIII:

The Battle of Jungfernhof, July 30. 1700.
Over a pontoon bridge at Thomsdorf across the Düna the Saxon Army advanced in 4 coloums against the Swedish Army posted at Jungfernhof near Riga. Because of the aggresive Advance of the Saxons the Swedish Corps of Gen. v.Welling was thrown back to Riga with significant losses. General Welling cleared Livonia completly after reinforcing the garrison of Riga by 5.000 men to combine himself with the Army of Charles XII. which moved against the Russians. The Saxon encirceled Riga and the real Siege of Riga began.
http://www.digam.net/image.php?file=dok ... jpg&b=1000
The Heavy Siege Train from Saxony has finaly arrived with its heavy guns under the command of Oberst v. Klengel.
The Siege wasn't done with all the Force available because of the political circumstance of the seperate Piece Treaty of Denmark with Sweden.
On Sept. 18th King August stopped the Siege of Riga and moved the Army against the small fortress Kokenhausen as it represented an important connection for the Saxon Army with Russia.
http://www.digam.net/image.php?file=img ... 200&h=auto
On Oct. 7th Kokenhausen capitulated after a not in real started bombardment and some stormed redoubts.
After this the Saxon Army moved back behind the Düna into their Winter Quartiers.
At Nov 20th 1700 the Russian Main Army suffered a total Defeat at Narva which deprimed the Saxon Troops as the Army was not to be called as war ready becuase of the lack of money.
As Saxony itself was emptied of troops King August cut a deal with the Danish King to send an Auxiliary Corps to secure the Saxon Homelands. The Corps consisted of 8 Battalions Infantry and 2 Dragoon Regiments under the command of the General Prince of Würtemberg. It arrived in December and left the Land in September 1701 again, now in service of Austria as an Auxiliary Corps to move to the Rhine.

To be continued...
Last edited by Friedrich August I. on Tue Aug 08, 2017 7:21 am, edited 2 times in total.
„Macht Euch Euren Dregg alleene“

"Sort your filth out by yourself!" The King of Saxony Friedrich August III., at his abdication 1918, referred to the quarrels in the parliament and the squabbling within the provisional government.
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