My 2 Cts,
Muscovite Troops of the age before Peter has I rather high percentage of Levy Troops, The Noblemen called Boyar's, were the ruling, land and household owning class and as such of a feudal society in any sort of view.
approx. 30% of a Muscovite Army (1651 almost 52.000)
Opolchenie - levy of Nobility
Pomiestina Cavalry - lesser Nobles and sons of Boyars
Equipment: Various sorts are recorded, such as Sabers, Maces, Spears, Javelins, Bows and Long Firearms. Armor was quite expensive and only available to the richest of the Nobles. The had Chainmai and Plate, Chain Shirts were the most common. Those who could not afford such Armour wore kind of Brigantine
Muscovite Reiters - 1663 saw 22 Regiments with about 30.000 Reiters.
Based on Western European model, Better disciplined, organized and trained, mainly by foreigners who manned the Officer Corps.
Equipment: Heavy Cavalry like Western European models, armed with long Firearms(Muskets Arquebuses), Rapiers or Sabers, a pair of Pistols. Steel Helmets and Breastplates as protection.
Muscovite Dragoons - about 7% of the Army (1651 about 8.000
Equipment: Matchlock Musket, a short pike or Spear, a Saber and a Horse.
Cossacks - about 12% of the Army (1630 roughly 11.000)
Streltsy about 30% of the Army (1651 almost 45.000)
Moscow Streltsy as some kind of Elite and sheltered near and around Moscow
Municipal Streltsy as Garrison Troops.
Equipment: Long Firearms, Axes and Sabres, NCOs with Partizans. No Pikes.
Soldat Infantry - 1661-63 saw 42 Soldat Regiments with 25.000 men
Soldat Regiments were uniformed and trained after Western Model.
Compared with Streltsy the "Pike and Shot" Regiments were considered as well trained Troops with proper firepower. A large portion of Officers and NCOs were Foreigners. numbers of Companies differed, one company contained 120 Musketeers and 80 Pikemen.
Equipment: Matchlock Muskets, Rapiers; Pikes, Rapiers, Helmets and Breastplates
Well there are a lot more details available but I believe it gives you "The Picture"
Friedrich August I.
Elector of Saxony